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- Neumoconiosis; Asma ocupacional; Función pulmonar; Radiografía de tórax; Ocupación; Colombia; 616.2; Salud ocupacional; Enfermedades ocupacionales; Enfermedades respiratorias; Bucaramanga (Colombia); Pneumoconiosis; Occupational asthma; Lung function; Chest x-ray; Occupation
thesis / dissertation description
Introduction: Occupational respiratory disease is caused by exposure to different agents at work. Objective tests performed on suspicion of occupational respiratory disease are important tools that allow an adequate diagnosis, an early detection of occupational respiratory disease, decreases the rapid progression of the pathology, the morbidity of workers and the negative impact on their future labor. Objective: To characterize the paraclinical tests of respiratory pathologies of workers, at a Bucaramanga pneumological reference center in 2014-2016. Materials and methods: A retrospective descriptive study was carried out with secondary data of 96 workers working in different economic activities. Socio-demographic, labor, support images and pulmonary function tests were included, performing 3 groups according to their pathology: Asthma, reactive airway dysfunction syndrome and pneumoconiosis. In the statistical analysis we used measures of central tendency and dispersion Results: Of the 96 workers 84.4% were men, the most frequent economic activities were the oil and gas industry in 27.1% and workers in construction materials in 19.8%. For the paraclinical characterization by group of pathology for asthma predominated obstruction in spirometry (46.9%) and pulmonary volumes with air trapping (95.5%), in RADS lung volumes with air trapping (77%) and pneumoconiosis for thoracic RX (90.3%) and chest thorax (100%) reported parenchymal alterations, spirometry with obstruction (54.8%) and pulmonary volumes with air trapping (62.5%).Discussion and conclusions: There are occupations of greater risk for the development of occupational pneumopathies, those are the mining and construction, for asthma agriculture and manufactures. For the asthma, it is clear that there is no diagnostic significance for imaging studies, instead for the pulmonary function tests. For pneumoconiosis, the imaging study stands out being the most important subject because in the radiographs changes are presented even long before the affectation of the pulmonary function. For RADS it is inferred that performing a provocation test with methacholine would be the gold standard for the diagnosis. The respiratory function tests are of vital importance to determine the occupational disease in workers exposed for surveillance and early detection, it is advisable to carry out protocols for the evaluation and diagnosis of occupational respiratory disease. Keywords: Pneumoconiosis, occupational asthma, lung function, chest X-ray, occupation, Colombia.