Trastornos musculoesqueléticos en trabajadores de la industria automotriz: revisión de la literatura 2000 a 2016.

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instname:Universidad del Rosario

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Ortiz Salom, Sergio Nicolás; Gutiérrez Cubillos, Andrés Camilo; Cuéllar Barreto, Carlos Armando; Especialista en Salud Ocupacional
Facultad de Medicina; Universidad del Rosario
Trastornos músculo-esqueléticos; Industria automotriz; Síntomas; Prevalencia; 611.73; Salud ocupacional; Musculoskeletal disorders; Automotive industry; Prevalence; Symptoms; Salud laboral; Sistema musculoesquelético; Enfermedades laborales
thesis / dissertation description
Musculoskeletal disorders are highly related to the automotive industry, affecting mainly workers in whom several pathologies can be found such as Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, epicondylitis, rotator cuff syndrome, lumbar discopathy and low back pain among others. The risk factors associated with this are repetitive movements, inadequate postures, vibration, manual use of tools, demanding physical tasks, poor weight lifting. All these pathologies are the cause of work absenteeism worldwide, which leads to an increase in the economic cost for disabilities, diagnostic aids and treatments. A review of the scientific literature of articles published between 2000 and 2016, regarding musculoskeletal disorders in the automotive industry was carried out in Pubmed, Ebsco Host, ScienceDirect and Embase databases.The evidence showed that lumbar pathology is one of highest present prevalence with 65% in Europe, 42% in Asia, 20% in North America and 46% in Latin America. Although, the automotive industry predominates as men's labor force, they were the Women who had the highest risk factors for developing Musculoskeletal Disorders and within these inadequate postures, repetitive movements, labor overload, weight lifting, and exposure time were a common denominator in each of the studies analyzed. From this study we can conclude, that the prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders, in the automotive industry is high. This warrants the implementation of prevention programs more focused on this topic. Furthermore, the existence of an efficient method for postural analysis and physical overload was not found in the literature. This tells us of an urgent need to carry out more focused research in this type of population.