Factores de riesgo y estrategias de prevención en trauma ocular como accidente laboral

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reponame:Repositorio Institucional EdocUR

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Rojas, Lina; García, Viviana; Castaño, Yohana; Especialista en Salud Ocupacional
Facultad de Medicina; Universidad del Rosario
Lesiones oculares ocupacionales; Prevención; Accidente ocupacional; Prevención de accidentes; 617.7; Ojos::Heridas y lesiones; Accidentes laborales; Salud ocupacional; Occupational eye injuries; Prevention; Occupational accident; Accident prevention
thesis / dissertation description
Objective: To determine the most relevant risk factors that lead workers to present ocular occupational accidents, as well as the strategies most used to prevent them and their impact on the working population. Materials and Methods: Systematic review through a search using the terms "occupational eye injuries and prevention" finding 1810 articles from the scientific literature in recognized databases such as Medline Proquest, Pubmed, Medline Ovid, Medline Ebsco and Embase. Thirty academic and review articles of the last five years (2012-2017), which study humans of the working population and talk about the study variables, risk factors and prevention strategies in occupational accidents at work, in english and spanish, were included. On the other hand, 1780 articles that did not meet the selection criteria mentioned were excluded. Results: The risk factors for ocular trauma affected most frequent the masculine gender, with an average age of 33.24 years, formal education level with an average of 6 years 19, [OR] = 2.24, 95% CI : 1.74-2.87), with less than $ 15,000 incomes per year (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.07-1.95), significant association in workers who labor more than 40 hours per week (OR 2.09, 1.08 - 4.03 , p = 0.027), and having a bad or defective perception of vision (OR 1.26, 1.05 - 1.52, p = 0.015), significant association between age and vision condition [t (118) = 2,901, P = 0.004] . Ocular trauma is avoidable by the use of eye protection elements, therefore, more attention should be offered through protective equipment instruction and compliance by the use of subsidies from employers for frequent campaigns of prevention. Conclusion: Occupational eye accidents must be considered as a public health problem, with risk factors that can be modified and allow the generation of a prevention and protection culture with an appropriate selection of eye protection elements.