Países en desarrollo y globalización : ¿ganadores o perdedores?

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Borradores de Investigación: Serie documentos economia, ISSN 0124-4396, No. 91 (Octubre de 2006), ISSN: 0124-4396

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Anzola Gil, Marcela
Universidad del Rosario. Facultad de economía; Editorial Universidad del Rosario
Globalización; Comercio internacional; Inversión extranjera; Desarrollo; Publicaciones universitarias::Bogotá (Colombia); Publicaciones académicas::Bogotá (Colombia); Educación superior; Economía; Análisis de inversiones; Política económica internacional; Globalization; International trade; Foreign investments; Development; Globalización, comercio internacional, inversión extranjera, desarrollo; PUBLICACIONES UNIVERSITARIAS - BOGOTA (COLOMBIA); PUBLICACIONES ACADEMICAS - BOGOTA (COLOMBIA); EDUCACION SUPERIOR – BOGOTA (COLOMBIA) – PUBLICACIONES SERIADAS; UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO. FACULTAD DE ECONOMIA– INVESTIGACIONES - BOGOTA (COLOMBIA) – PUBLICACIONES SERIADAS; ECONOMÍA – PAÍSES EN DESARROLLO; COMERCIO INTERNACIONAL; ANÁLISIS DE INVERSIONES; GLOBALIZACIÓN; POLÍTICA ECONÓMICA INTERNACIONAL
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International trade and investment flows have increased more rapidly than world GDP over the last two decades. This rapid growth of international transactions has commonly been referred to as globalisation. This phenomenon may be seen as a source of efficiency gains and growth, as countries tend to specialise in the production of goods in which they have a comparative advantage. However, it has also been argued that globalisation has not contributed to overall world growth, but only benefited a small number of countries and has leaded to a concentration of trade and investment flows and greater inequality. Evidence has shown, that the effects of globalisation on developing countries depend on many factors, especially on countries or region’s characteristics. Welfare gains are largely due to the countries’ own liberalisation measures, rather than to trade concessions by their foreign trade partners, and marginalisation of some countries from world markets are not inherent to the globalisation process. It can be mostly explained by inward-looking domestic policies. Certain developing countries have been highly successfully in building a developmental strategy based on foreign investment in their economies. In these cases, inward investment has been associated with rapid industrialisation and a concomitant expansion of increasingly technologically-sophisticated manufactured exports.