Jacks of metal/metalloid chelation trade in plants-an overview.
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Frontiers in plant science, ISSN: 1664-462X, Vol: 6, Issue: APR, Page: 192
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- Agricultural and Biological Sciences; metal/metalloids; planttolerance; chelation; thiolcompounds; glutathione; organicacid; metalloth- ioneins; phytochelatins
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Varied environmental compartments including soils are being contaminated by a myriad toxic metal(loid)s (hereafter termed as "metal/s") mainly through anthropogenic activities. These metals may contaminate food chain and bring irreparable consequences in human. Plant-based approach (phytoremediation) stands second to none among bioremediation technologies meant for sustainable cleanup of soils/sites with metal-contamination. In turn, the capacity of plants to tolerate potential consequences caused by the extracted/accumulated metals decides the effectiveness and success of phytoremediation system. Chelation is among the potential mechanisms that largely govern metal-tolerance in plant cells by maintaining low concentrations of free metals in cytoplasm. Metal-chelation can be performed by compounds of both thiol origin (such as GSH, glutathione; PCs, phytochelatins; MTs, metallothioneins) and non-thiol origin (such as histidine, nicotianamine, organic acids). This paper presents an appraisal of recent reports on both thiol and non-thiol compounds in an effort to shed light on the significance of these compounds in plant-metal tolerance, as well as to provide scientific clues for the advancement of metal-phytoextraction strategies.